1: Iceland, UK, Scotland, and Ireland

2: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Germany

3: Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal

4: Australia, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, and China

5: India, Saudia Arabia, UAE, Israel, and Turkey

6: South Africa, Kenya, Egypt, and Morocco

7: Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru, the Galapagos Islands, Puerto Rico, and Aruba

8: Canada, Mexico, and the United States

The boom in natural gas production has undeniable benefits for the United States. But two policy analysts argue that embracing a monolithic energy future dominated by gas will mean the loss of a golden opportunity: Leveraging cheap, abundant gas to create a sustainable future based on renewable power.

by kevin doran and adam reed

13 Aug 2012   yale 360

http://e360.yale.edu/feature/natural_gas_role_in_us_energy_endgame/2561/

What about Thorium?

Posted by Dot Sulock at 2:27 pm
Aug 142012

August 13, 2012  FAS Roundup

There is four times as much thorium on Earth as there is uranium, and that less than 1 percent of uranium consists of U-235. In the past few years, there has been discussion in the United States, China and India regarding thorium power. What exactly is thorium power, and what are the pros and cons of it?

http://www.fas.org/blogs/sciencewonk/2012/08/what-about-thorium/

Jun 142012

“… we have estimated the total EGS resource base to be more than 13 million exajoules (EJ). Using reasonable assumptions regarding how heat would be mined from stimulated EGS reservoirs, we also estimated the extractable portion to exceed 200,000 EJ or about 2,000 times the annual consumption of primary energy in the United States in 2005. With technology improvements, the economically extractable amount of useful energy could increase by a factor of 10 or more, thus making EGS sustainable for centuries.”      Read the entire MIT report:  The Future of Geothermal Energy (November 2006) here:

http://web.mit.edu/mitei/research/studies/geothermal-energy.shtml

Exajoules are actually a pretty useful energy measure.  1 Exajoule is about 278 TWh.  Earth always needs a steady flow of something between 12 and 18 TW of energy from all sources.  Estimates vary from source to source but are always within this range.  1 TW = 1 (24) (365) = 8760 TWh

So the planet needs something like 15 x 8760 = 130,000 TWh of energy from all sources annually or about 470 Exajoules.  Nice small numbers because EJ is a very big unit.

Does this  agree with 200,000 EJ being 2000 times the annual consumption of primary energy in the US in 2005?

Primary energy consumption was about 27,000 TWh for the US in 2005 which is about 97 EJ.

So, yes, 200,000 EJ is about 2000 times the annual consumption of primary energy in the US in 2005.

The US can access 200,000 EJ of geothermal energy using Enhanced Geothermal Systems and we need 100 EJ of energy from all sources per year.  EGS will last a while!

 

“The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States.”  Read the entire article “Global potential for wind-generated electricity.”  http://www.pnas.org/content/106/27/10933.full?sid=155cea58-cfc5-47f9-a8af-a45bcacfce71

Notice that world energy is pretty different from world electricity and we always have to pay attention to which is being discussed.  We could infer from this article that electrical energy is something like 1/8 of total energy.